LASER EYE SURGERY

Laser eye surgery is a modern, popular, effective method aimed at improving and restoring the functions of vision. This is practically the only way to help minimize the wearing of glasses and lenses or completely abandon their use. The essence of the procedure is the use of a laser. The laser beam is directed at the ocular cornea, as a result of which it changes its shape (optical properties), and the retina has the opportunity to focus the image correctly, thus, the process of improving vision occurs.

Before performing vision correction, the patient undergoes a special diagnosis, as a result of the data obtained, it is estimated how safe the procedure is for him, and only then, after a detailed study of the indicators, laser correction is prescribed or not prescribed. This is decided, first of all, by an ophthalmologist. The vision correction procedure is individual for each patient.

If it is scheduled, then you need to prepare for it:

  • A few days before the operation, stop wearing lenses;
  • Alcohol should not be consumed two days before the procedure;
  • Do not use eye makeup on the day of surgery;
  • On the day of the operation, no diseases should be observed (cough, runny nose, fever). This is because any cold reduces immunity, which means that the recovery process after laser manipulation may take a little longer.
  • After laser eye correction, it is better to rest for a few days to fully restore the body.

Visual impairments in which laser eye correction is recommended

The most common optical defects of the organ of vision, in which ophthalmologists prescribe or recommend laser correction, are myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism. Special programs have been developed for each of these states.

Nearsightedness, or myopia, is when a person clearly sees close objects, and blurs or poorly sees what is far away. Laser correction will be appropriate if myopia is not too pronounced.

Hyperopia, or hypermetropia– is a defect in optics, in which objects at a distant distance are visible, and nearby objects are blurred.

Astigmatism is an uneven curvature of the cornea. In this case, laser surgery performed on the cornea is effective. It is used for the low and medium degree of astigmatism.

Often people who wear glasses or lenses feel uncomfortable, or for some reason cannot wear them, in this case, you can also resort to vision correction with a laser. Often, laser vision correction is performed by athletes who cannot wear glasses by occupation.

Who cannot do laser eye surgery?

Contraindications to laser correction are:

  • Retinal dystrophy. For the treatment of pathology, PPLC (peripheral preventive laser coagulation) is successfully used. After the procedure, the patient again has the opportunity to make laser vision corrections.
  • Thin cornea.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Keratoconus. Keratoplasty, corneal tissue transplantation surgery is effectively used to treat keratoconus.
  • The age of the patient is under 18 and over 45.
  • Myopia of high degrees. To correct vision in such cases, there is an alternative — phakic lenses. They are implanted inside the eye without removing the lens to correct vision for short and long distances.
  • Progressive deterioration of vision.
  • The presence of cancer.
  • Pregnant women, as well as during breastfeeding;

Methods of laser eye surgery

Laser surgery consists of various methods:

  • LASIK;
  • LASEK;
  • FRK.

Each method has varieties (modifications), some of them are used more often, and some – in extremely rare cases.

LASIK is the foundation thanks to which laser correction has been widely developed all over the world. This is a type of laser surgery in which an automated device (microkeratome) is used. With his help, the doctor cuts out an ultra-thin valve on the surface of the cornea, from its layers. The thinner the valve is cut, the stronger the layer of the preserved cornea. According to the LASIK method, evaporation occurs from the middle layers of the cornea. With a femtosecond laser, the formation of the corneal valve is performed not by a mechanical tool, but by tissue stratification. The final stage of this method is the laying back of the valve, which quickly takes root during the day. The stronger the preserved layer, the more successful the operation was. After a few hours, the traces of the operation disappear. The thinnest layer of the valve can be formed using the Femto-LASIK method.

LASEK is a type of laser correction in which a surface valve is not formed. It is used in special cases when the patient’s cornea is too thin or too flat, and the formation of a valve on its surface is almost impossible. During this procedure, the surface layer of the cornea is removed in the central part and corrected by laser pulses. The pulses are controlled by a computer. To do this, an alcohol solution is used, applied to the eye surface for a few seconds. The final stage of the operation is putting a special contact lens on the cornea for the entire recovery period, the duration of which is 5-6 days. At this time, the patient may feel some discomfort, which can be eliminated by using eye, moisturizing drops.

PRK is a method, the essence of which is the evaporation of the epithelial layer, while an alcohol solution is not used. This method in laser surgery appeared long before the Lasek method. It was first used in the mid-80s. It is still widely used in laser surgery, especially where there are contraindications to other manipulations. The recovery and healing period is three days.

In addition to the main types of correction, many new modifications are being developed, which are gradually being applied in practice and taking their place in laser surgery.

How to behave in the postoperative period
  • After surgery, the patient must adhere to certain rules so as not to disrupt the recovery process of the organ of vision and the body as a whole:
  • On the first day after the operation, it is strictly forbidden to touch the eyes with your hands. In case of excessive lacrimation, use a handkerchief or napkins;
  • A day after the operation, you can get behind the wheel of a car, read books, write, work at a computer and watch TV. On the day of surgery, it is better not to do this, because the eyes need rest;
  • Apply eye drops strictly according to the doctor’s prescription. Drops are introduced behind the lower eyelid, slightly pushing it away;
  • We do not recommend to use decorative cosmetics for 14 days after surgery;
  • The skin must breathe, so it is impossible to apply eye patches or glue patches after laser surgery;
  • During the month after the procedure related to vision correction, it is forbidden to play sports, ski or skate, visit swimming pools, baths and saunas;
  • It is better to wear sunglasses on the street as protection;
  • Regular checkups by a doctor after surgery are necessary;
  • To avoid negative consequences, in case of pain in the eye area, you should visit your doctor;
  • Complete restoration of visual functions occurs after a few months.

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